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Adamsia palliata (O.F. Muller, 1776)

(photo of Dirk Schories, Germany: specimen from Norway, Europe)
     
Adamsia palliata Adamsia palliata or the Cloak anemone lives almost exclusively on hermit crab Pagurus prideaux (or Pagurus exacavatus). One or rarely two specimens may occur on each crab. Although Pagurus prideaux and Adamsia palliata almost never occur separately their symbiosis is not strictly obligate and unlike hermit crab Pagurus prideaux, Adamsia palliata (according data of Ates, 1995) can survive for more than three year in aquarium without hermit crab.

The species has characteristic shape and color pattern with round lilac or red spots on the body and hardly can be confused with other sea anemone species.

Manuel (1981, 1988) in his revision of British Anthozoa applied to this species a name Adamsia carciniopados. However Cornelius and Ates in 2003 shoved that Adamsia palliata is a valid name for this species, and the author of this name is O.F. Mueller, 1776. Fautin (2016) in her catalog to families, genera, and species of Actiniaria probably overlooked the work of Cornelius and Ates (2003) and wrongly gave authorship of the species as Fabricius, 1779 (with a reference to Daly, Ardelean, Cha, Campbell and Fautin, 2004).

Update from 03 November 2019:
A nomenclatural problem around Adamsia and related (or synonymous) Calliactis has been created recently by Gusmao, Rodriguez and Daly (2019). These authors synonymized genera Adamsia and Calliactis. They correctly stated that Adamsia is an older name and has a priority, i.e. the generic name Adamsia must be used instead of Calliactis by anyone who considers that these genera indeed are synonyms. However, for some (rather weak from our point of view) reasons these authors preferred to maintain the use of junior (=invalid) synonym Calliactis over senior (=valid) synonym Adamsia. Such cases are regulated by Article 23.9 (entitled "Reversal of precedence") of International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. The main goal of this article is to prevent introducing very old forgotten names over widely accepted names which were discovered to be invalid. In accordance with the Article 23.9.2 Rodriguez and Gusmao (2019) submitted a request to International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (case 3805) to give a precedence to Calliactis over Adamsia. We see no reasons why a precedence should be given to Calliactis over Adamsia, but now we all have to wait a decision of Commission (it may took several years). In their paper above named authors wrote: "While the case is under consideration, the junior name is to be maintained; thus, here we use Calliactis for species formerly included in genus Adamsia." This decision (the usage of junior name Calliactis oved older Adamsia while waiting a decision of Commission) is wrong and is based on incorrect interpretation of Article 23.9.3. This article refers to Article 82.1 which reads: "When a case is under consideration by the Commission, prevailing usage (see Glossary) of names is to be maintained until the ruling of the Commission is published." The key phrase here is the "prevailing usage". Both names, Adamsia and Calliactis, were (and are) widely used as valid names by numerous authors, each name is prevailingly used for corresponding species, i.e. Adamsia prevailingly used for several species assigned to Adamsia, while Calliactis was prevailingly used for several species assigned by various authors to Calliactis.


Taxonomic position:
Phylum: Cnidaria
Class: Anthozoa
Order: Actiniaria

Family: Hormathiidae

Species: Adamsia palliata (O.F. Muller, 1776)

Species list of sea anemones:
  • Acricoactis brachyacontis
  • Actinernus robustus
  • Actinia equina
  • Actinodendron sp
  • Actinostella bradleyi
  • Actinostephanus haeckeli
  • Actinostola chilensis
  • Actinothoe sphyrodeta
  • Adamsia palliata
  • Aiptasia couchii
  • Aiptasia mutabilis
  • Alicia mirabilis
  • Alicia sansibarensis
  • Allantactis parasitica
  • Amplexidiscus fenestrafer
  • Andresia parthenopea
  • Anemonia alicemartinae
  • Anemonia viridis
  • Antholoba achates
  • Anthopleura elegantissima
  • Anthopleura hermaphroditica
  • Anthopleura orientalis
  • Anthopleura sola
  • Anthopleura xanthogrammica
  • Anthothoe chilensis
  • Armactinia antarctica
  • Artemidactis victrix
  • Aulactinia vancouverensis
  • Aulactinia vladimiri
  • Bathyphellia margaritacea
  • Boloceroides mcmurrichi
  • Boloceropsis platei
  • Bunodactis verrucosa
  • Calliactis polypus
  • Cereus herpetodes
  • Cereus pedunculatus
  • Cerianthus lloydii
  • Charisea saxicola
  • Cnidopus japonicus
  • Condylactis aurantiaca
  • Condylactis gigantea
  • Corallimorphus karinae
  • Corallimorphus pilatus
  • Corynactis californica
  • Corynactis carnea
  • Corynactis viridis
  • Cribrinopsis albopunctata
  • Cribrinopsis crassa
  • Cribrinopsis fernaldi
  • Cribrinopsis olegi
  • Cribrinopsis rubens
  • Cryptodendrum adhaesivum
  • Dactylanthus antarcticus
  • Diadumene lineata
  • Discosoma nummiforme
  • Dofleinia armata
  • Edwardsia inachi
  • Edwardsiella loveni
  • Entacmaea quadricolor
  • Epiactis prolifera
  • Epizoanthus couchii
  • Epizoanthus fiordicus
  • Exaiptasia diaphana
  • Glyphoperidium bursa
  • Gonactinia prolifera
  • Gyractis octoradiata
  • Halcampa arctica
  • Halcampoides sp
  • Halcampoides mediterranea
  • Halcurias pilatus
  • Heteractis aurora
  • Heterodactyla hemprichii
  • Hormathia lacunifera
  • Hormathia nodosa
  • Hormathia pacifica
  • Hormathia pectinata
  • Hormosoma scotti
  • Isaurus tuberculatus
  • Isoparactis fabiani
  • Isoparactis fionae
  • Isosicyonis alba
  • Korsaranthus natalensis
  • Liponema brevicorne
  • Macrodactyla doreensis
  • Megalactis griffithsi
  • Mesozoanthus fossii
  • Metridium farcimen
  • Metridium lobatum
  • Metridium senile
  • Metridium senile fimbriatum
  • Nemanthus sp
  • Octineon suecicum
  • Oulactis concinnata
  • Pachycerianthus multiplicatus
  • Pachycerianthus solitarius
  • Paracalliactis involvens
  • Paracondylactis sinensis
  • Paracorynactis hoplites
  • Paraisanthus tamarae
  • Paranthus niveus
  • Parazoanthus anguicomus
  • Parazoanthus axinellae
  • Parazoanthus elongatus
  • Peachia cylindrica
  • Phellia exlex
  • Phelliactis callicyclus
  • Phyllodiscus semoni
  • Phymactis papillosa
  • Phymanthea pluvia
  • Phymanthus crucifer
  • Phymanthus species
  • Platyzoanthus mussoides
  • Protanthea simplex
  • Protopalythoa mutuki
  • Pseudocorynactis caribbeorum
  • Ptychodactis aleutiensis
  • Ptychodactis patula
  • Radianthus crispa
  • Radianthus magnifica
  • Radianthus malu
  • Rhodactis inchoata
  • Rhodactis indosinensis
  • Ricordea yuma
  • Sagartia elegans
  • Sicyonis heliodiscus
  • Spongiactis japonica
  • Stichodactyla gigantea
  • Stichodactyla haddoni
  • Stichodactyla tapetum
  • Stomphia coccinea
  • Telmatactis sp
  • Triactis producta
  • Urticina clandestina
  • Urticina columbiana
  • Urticina crassicornis
  • Urticina eques
  • Urticina felina
  • Urticina grebelnyi
  • Urticina kurila
  • Urticina mcpeaki
  • Verrillactis paguri

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